Sample Methodology and Interpretation

Spore-Trap Ambient Air Sampling:

• Air samples are collected using a vacuum pump, calibrated to 15 liters per minute and AiroCell cassettes.

• An air sample normally is required for about 500-700sf of living area, depending on configuration.

• A total of 75 liters of air, per cassette, is passed over a culture medium which collected the spores on its adhesive surface.

• Sampling conducted by this method allows for collection of viable (living) and non-viable (dead) spores.

Spore-Trap Wall Cavity Air sampling:

• Air samples were collected using a vacuum pump, calibrated to 15 liters per minute and AiroCell cassettes.

• This sampling technique requires that a small hole be placed through the interior surface of the wallboard. A clean plastic tube is inserted through the opening in the wall. A special sample collection device is attached to the tube that contains an Air-O-Cell cassette.

• A total of 15 liters of air, per cassette, is passed over a culture medium which collect the spores on its adhesive surface.
Surface Sampling Tape-Lift or Swabs.

• A swab or crystal clear cellophane tape is applied to the questionable surface area; the adhesive surface collects the surface particles the tape is then placed in a microscopic slide for evaluation.

Spore-Trap and Surface Sample Evaluation

Cassettes and slides are transported to an AIHA and ISO accredited laboratory, under chain of custody, where they undergo Microscopic and Analytical  Evaluation.

Air Sampling Interpretation

• The analytical results are expressed as total spore counts per cubic meter of air.

• Assessment of indoor and outdoor air quality specifically associated with microbial environments are complex, dynamic, and transient as sampling results change over time. Air sampling data only represents a specific moment in time.

• There are no current state or federal guidelines or regulations to indicate “safe” or “normal” spore levels; an effective industry wide and internationally accepted interpretation is based on the comparison of indoor and outdoor samples.

• The types and relative percentages of fungi need to be similar with no appreciable presence of mold spore types not normally associated with an indoor environment. This desirable environmental result suggests that the exposure to airborne mold within the interior areas sampled is the same as that on the outside of the building.

Surface Sampling Interpretation

• The purpose for collecting surface samples is to confirm the presence of mold growth and to identify the genera of visible growth on a surface.

• Analysis is conducted at an AIHA laboratory by direct microscopic examination.

• Each surface sample is analyzed by direct microscopic examination. This method of analysis is an effective means of determining whether or not mold is growing on the surface sampled, and if so, what kinds of molds are present.

• A direct microscopic examination:

• Most surfaces collect a mix of spores that are normally present in the environment. It is possible to note a skewing of the normal distribution of spore types, and also to note marker genera that may indicate indoor mold growth.

• Note that locating an area of mold growth indoors using surface samples does not provide information regarding airborne spore levels.

Mold growth present:

• Samples are examined for the presence of mold growth, as indicated by groups, clumps, and/or chains of single spore types, usually accompanied by intact mycelial and/or sporulation structures. These areas of growth are then identified to genus name, if possible.

• Quantities are estimated and are graded on a scale from “Low” to “High”. If mold growth is found, depending on the magnitude of the growth, it may be recommended that the growth be physically removed and/or treated using appropriate controls and precautions by a professional remediation company.

Miscellaneous spores present:

• This is a measure of the mix of spores that are present and are indicative of normal conditions, in other words, seen normally on surfaces almost everywhere. This includes basidiospores (mushroom spores), myxomycetes (“slime molds”), plant pathogens such as rusts and smuts, and a mix of saprobic mold with no particular spore type predominating. The distribution of these spore types resembles that seen outdoors.

Background debris:

• Background debris is an indication of the amounts of non-biological particulate matter present. This background material is graded and described as light, medium, heavy, or very heavy.

• Very heavy background debris may obscure visibility for the analyst. Bulk samples are not graded in this category.

Other comments:

• Additional relevant information is provided, such as the presence of marker genera or the abnormal distribution of spore types. Bacteria may be noted, as well as significant numbers of other biological particles such as algae, lichen, dust mites, etc.

BioReveal swabs – an ATP microbial detection system

• The BioReveal real-time biological detection system measures the ATP [adenosine tri phosphate] molecule, which is found in all living organisms such as mold, bacteria, plant and animal cells.

• Biological contaminants and bio-film residues contain ATP, which can be collected, tested and quantified using the BioReveal system.

• The system is designed to provide instant results for bio-contamination testing on surfaces or in liquids.

• BioReveal provides instant capability of testing for mold and bacteria on surfaces as part of water damage loss evaluations (IICRC S500 and S520), IAQ and industrial hygiene evaluations, bacteria outbreak investigations and for performing Post Remediation Verification Testing (PRVT) for mold and bacteria remediation projects.

• BioReveal is an extremely sensitive detection system and can indicate the presence of dangerous mold, virus and bacterial organisms.

BioReveal Swab Sampling – Surface Testing

• Interpretation of BioReveal Swab Sampling Results
BioReveal Luminometer

• The BioReveal ATP luminometer state-of-the-art electronics and functionality this allows companies to quickly determine the cleaning efficiency and hygienic status of surfaces and water.

• Used hospitals, restoration cleaning and remediation contractors, mold and environmental testing companies.

• Sensitive – detects down to 1 femtomole of ATP.

• Results in 15 seconds.

• BioReveal Ultrasnap ATP swabs, for exclusive use with the BioReveal luminometer will determine the level of surface contamination for viable (live) biological matter (mold and bacteria), biofilms and related microbial organisms.

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